Archive for the ‘Leadership’ Category
Over the years I have had the opportunity build and lead many teams. Whether it was an existing team I was charged with or building a team from scratch, I observed a very predictable group dynamic.
In 1965, Bruce Tuckman introduced a model for group development known by many as Forming-Storming-Norming-Performing. In this model Tuckman asserts that in the first stage of team building (forming), individual behavior is influenced by a desire to be accepted by the others and avoid controversy or conflict. In this phase team members tend to be self-centered, trying to gain the trust and confidence of teammates and the team leader. While Tuckman claims this is an important stage in team building, he acknowledges that very little work is accomplished during this time.
High-performing teams are able to move through this stage quickly, making them productive much more quickly than others. So, how does this happen? Is it personal chemistry that allows one group to move more quickly through these stages than others? The simple answer is no.
Leaders skilled in building HPTs understand the human dynamics related to Tuckman’s model and are able to accelerate matters by appealing to a need greater than the desire to be accepted. It is the need to have value. Each and every one of us needs to feel purpose in our lives. It is what validates us in our humanity. It is what gives us soul.
While many people on a team can possess the exact same skill, each individual on the team possesses a unique mix of attributes, gifts and talents that allows him/her to offer unique value to the team. The first order of business for an effective leader is to quickly identify the unique value of each team member, and to call it out publicly.
Let’s be clear. I am not suggesting that you announce to the team that the finance person, Tina, is good at finance. Everyone expects Tina to be good at finance. That is what she was trained for. If she’s not good at finance, she shouldn’t be on the team. A good leader will quickly recognize that Tina has the ability to see patterns of opportunity emerge, or that George excels at building consensus. A good leader recognizes Natalie’s gift for diffusing disagreements before they accelerate into all-out warfare, and Tim’s attention to detail.
Once an inventory is taken of each team member’s unique capabilities, the HPT leader must honor each one publicly. Letting both the individual and the team know the value this unique gift brings validates each individual on the team in a meaningful way. By quickly calling it out, you can accelerate the forming stage, allowing team members to shift the center of focus from themselves to the establishment and attainment of goals and objectives.
In summary, rule #5 for building high-performing teams is that we will honor the unique strengths of each individual on the team, and rely on those strengths to help us achieve our goals. Stay tuned for rule #6 in an upcoming post.
A woman dies. As she encounters Saint Peter at the pearly gates she says,
“St. Peter, it is good to see you, but how did I get here?”
“Welcome Dr. Fluesham, your position as the Head of Emergency at Flipsum Memorial Hospital is what got you here.”
“Please, call me Lucy, but I thought I would have to at least make Chief Medical Officer at the hospital in order to be guaranteed a spot in heaven.”
Saint Peter gave a warm chuckle, and said,
“Perhaps I should explain further. As the result of a horrible car crash, you sustained traumatic brain injury, and were rendered unconscious. The EMTs transported you to Flipsum Memorial. Dr. Headstrom was on call, and determined you needed a decompressive craniectomy in order to get your ICP below target levels, and save your life.”
After receiving this information, Lucy became agitated, surprised and indignant, exclaiming,
“This makes no sense! Flipsum Memorial is best in class when it comes to brain trauma. I should know. I am—or should I say was—head of ER. Did the EMTs screw up transporting me? Did Dr. Headstrom botch the craniectomy?”
“No, my dear. The EMTs immediately recognized the potential for brain edema due to raised intracranial pressure. They knew that Flipsum Memorial specialized in brain injury and the Dr. Headstrom, the best of the best, was on call. They called ahead to make sure Dr. Headstrom knew you were on the way. The ER was prepped and ready, and you were transported in plenty of time to be saved. Dr. Headstrom performed brilliantly, quickly determining that IV fluids and oxygen infusion would not suffice to reduce the brain swelling. Anticipating the possible need for a decompressive craniectomy, he arranged to have an Operating Room prepped before your arrival.”
“It was at this point that your position brought you to heaven. Because decompressive craniectomies are a last resort, and very expensive, you issued a directive last week indicating that none shall be performed without your approval. If only you weren’t unconscious.”
As far-fetched as this little parable may seem, leaders frequently allow boundaries based on position to govern the performance of their team.
Rule #4 for building a high-performing team is that there are NO boundaries based on position. If your subordinate believes you are about to make a bad decision, or believes a better course of action is in order, you want them to speak freely. If there is not time to discuss it with you, and she is the expert, she should make the call.
The perception that hierarchy and position are in place to ensure proper decision-making is a throwback to the industrial age. Hierarchy and position are in place to provide direction and adequate resources. One of the most hierarchical organizations in the world, the United States military figured this out a while ago. Generals describe strategic objectives, and highly trained soldiers on the field determine the best course of action to accomplish the mission. Few would argue that there is a better example of high-performing teams than the U.S. military.
In today’s highly competitive, fast-paced and complex world, the person doing the job must be more expert at the job than anyone, including his boss. Even if his boss had the job first things change fast enough that his domain expertise quickly becomes dated. With HPTs, knowledge, training and perspective are what matter most—not position.
The late George Harrison frequently paraphrased the Cheshire Cat in chapter 6 of Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland by saying, “if you don’t know where you are going, any road will get you there.” He often used this phrase when describing his good fortune in knowing as a small child that he wanted to play guitar. The most casual music lovers know of George Harrison as one of the Beatles. More serious aficionados of 70s music also know him from his solo career, from his earliest works (Wonderwall Music and Electronic Sound) to his more notable contributions (All Things Must Pass, The Concert for Bangladesh, Living in the Material World).
What few people recognize is that Harrison was one of the greatest guitarists of his time. His studio collaborations were numerous, including co-writes and guest appearances on recorded songs with well-known singer-songwriters such as Eric Clapton, Bob Dylan, Dave Mason, Billy Preston, Dave Lynne and Tom Petty, to name a few. In referring to Harrison, Tom Petty said, “He just had a way of getting right to the business, of finding the right thing to play.” Rolling Stone founder Jann Wenner described him as someone who “played exquisitely in the service of the song”. Said differently, Harrison understood strategic fit within the purpose of the song.
This brings us to rule #3 for building a high-performance team (HTP): When considering new programs we will challenge each other to ensure a proper fit within our strategic map. I will offer a simple 3-step approach for implementing rule #3.
Step 1 – Develop an easy to remember optic to describe the strategic map for the team—the simpler you can make this, the better. When building Drexel University’s Baiada Center for Entrepreneurship we defined our primary focus as having two desired outcomes regarding entrepreneurship; creating interest and passion, and promoting thought leadership and best practices. Once that was determined we created a simple chart with interest & passion on the Y-axis and thought leadership & best practices on the X-axis. Once complete, we looked at every prospective program relative to if/where it fit on the map. This accomplishes two things. First, it ensures that we expend effort only on programs that fit within the map. Secondly, if a fit exists, it also informs where on the map it fits, allowing us to build complementary programs.
Step 2 – When making day-to-day decisions regarding programming and strategies, it is important to consider those decisions in the context of the strategic map. More importantly, that consideration should be made aloud. This helps to reinforce the team’s sense of purpose, vision and mission daily, and also provides an ongoing compass.
Step 3 – Encourage each member of the team to challenge one another regarding strategic fit. Each member of the team falls in a different spot along the spectrum between discovery and delivery skills. For example, I am stronger in discovery skills. As such, my tendency is to continually conceive new ideas for programs to offer our constituents. I am also good at convincing myself that my idea is stellar, which they are not, making it important that I shared my brilliant idea with my partner expending delivery effort. My partner would earnestly listen to my idea,then often question the strategic fit in a professional manner. This process always resulted in one of two outcomes—both good. In some instances it gave me an opportunity to explain the strategic fit, providing my partner a better perspective of our vision. In the early days this occurred with about 2% of the ideas. The majority of instances (98% of the time) it helped me to quickly see that my brilliant idea was not strategic. Another interesting outcome was that over time, my partners understanding of our vision was so complete that if she challenged the strategy, 99.8% of the time it was not a good fit.
Over the years, we have witnessed many excellent management concepts lose potency and currency once acceptance moves from the early adopters to the majority. This happens for two reasons:
- Once a concept starts to trend, many want to jump on the bandwagon.
- Although many want to join the fun, few want to do the hard work necessary to truly understand the concept and put it into practice. In an era of sound bites, instant gratification and quick fixes this problem becomes exacerbated.
In the 1970s we were introduced to the powerful leadership idea of MBWA (Management By Walking Around). As it gained wide acceptance, managers used the concept as an excuse to make “gossip-rounds” or to “check-up” on their folks to make to ensure they were busy working at their desks. In the 1980s the important management focus on quality often produced nothing more than increased layers of bureaucracy. Ironically, after Phillip Crosby’s book Quality is Free became a best seller, companies spent billions on consultants and programs to improve quality. In the 1990s folks used the concept of Empowerment as an excuse to act irresponsibly. More recently, we hear the term High-Performance Team (HPT) awarded as liberally as little league soccer trophies.
Just saying you have of a HPT does not make it so. One good indicator is how those outside the team view you. If outsiders see your team driven by a sense of purpose, enjoying your work, accomplishing a great deal with limited resources, and making it look easy in the process there is a good chance that you are part of a HPT.
It is important to understand that the nature of your team’s relationship with outsiders helps to predict their response to you. If they see themselves as your customer the most likely response is trust and admiration. If they see you as a competitor the most likely response is distrust and disdain. If they see you as a customer or partner their response becomes more dependent on how you treat them than how you perform as a team. If they feel your success benefits rather than threaten them they will likely view you as an ally.
Here are some tips for increasing your chances of being viewed as an ally.
- If you sincerely recognize that your success is due in part to their involvement, and share the rewards and accolades proportionally with them, you may be viewed as an ally.
- If their involvement with you makes them a better team, you may beviewed as an ally.
- If you never ask them to do something you would be unwilling to do, you may be viewed as an ally.
- If you never waste their time, you may be viewed as an ally.
Recently I had the privilege of leading a HPT. Feedback I received in a discussion with a fellow executive were very revealing. When asked how she viewed our team she said, “My team enjoys working with your team for three reasons. First, you always give us plenty of advance notice when you need a big project completed. Secondly, you never asked us to do anything that you do not use. Finally, the things you asked us to do for you often challenged us to stretch, making us become better at what we do.” Her feedback provided evidence that my team was performing at a high level.
This brings us to Rule # 2 for building HPTs: We will never ask anyone outside of the team to develop work, or provide support, for anything we do not fully intend to use.
There is a time and a place for busy work. During summer breaks as a child I quickly learned to never utter the words “I’m bored” in the presence of my father. Even during the school year, if I found myself lying on the couch on a Saturday morning watching cartoons, I always kept a keen ear on the driveway. Most Saturday mornings consisted of dad, a general contractor, checking on some of his jobs and typically returning mid-morning. Because his schedule was unpredictable, I never knew exactly when he might show up. What I did know is that if I was on the couch when he arrived he would find something for me to do. Something certain to be more fitting than zoning in front of the TV—at least in his mind. He had a knack for constructing a list of chores on the fly that would keep me occupied for the entire day.
I have come to learn over the years that each chore had a purpose far greater than having a weed-free lawn and garden, a spotless storage room, a well-swept patio or well-polished shoes. In fact, following his time as a U.S. Marine, I don’t think he cared if his shoes ever shined again. Certainly, he was never going to shine them himself! Although we never discussed it, I think his real purpose was to instill a work ethic, based on a few principles. The first was that any job, no matter how menial, should be done well. Secondly, you can do anything if you put your mind to it. Finally, he believed being lazy was second only to mass murder on the list of bad behaviors.
My dad used busy work as a way to teach me life lessons. Ironically, when I was around 30, my dad informed me that my problem was that I didn’t know how to relax. Funny guy! Busy work, however, has no place in purpose driven organizations, and is a sure-fire path to mediocre performance.
Rule #1 for high-performance teams is that there is no such thing as busy work. We challenge each other to only work on things that matter, and the only things that matter are those tasks that will help us achieve the goals and objectives to fulfill our purpose, vision and mission. When in doubt, ask if and how it fits. The answer “yes, it fits” is not sufficient. It must be accompanies with an explanation of how it fits, so your teammates can connect the dots.
If you adopt rule #1 the team will become much more productive, driven and willing to take on any task. You will also find that the team derives far more enjoyment and purpose in their work. In the next post I will discuss an important rule for dealing with those outside the team.
In the recent series, entitled Houston we have a Problem, I focused on six factors critical to success for founders of startups within a larger organization. They included: gaining and maintain latitude/autonomy, honoring sacred cows, putting out a BOLO on the larger organization, building grass roots support, adopting a distinct fiduciary approach, and building a high-performance team.
Since it is critical in any group dynamic (not just startups), I am dedicating a sub-series on seven rules for creating a culture and atmosphere for building high-performance teams. These rules of engagement will provide fertile ground for building an elite team that produces unparalleled results.
For this to be effective it is imperative that every member of the team possesses a deep understanding of the vision, mission and purpose of the organization. Developing such an understanding requires a process that takes time. I will provide suggestions for how to do this in subsequent posts.
Once your team members have internalized the vision, mission and purpose, each member of the team should enter into a contract to honor the rules, and hold each other mutually accountable to them. Based on your personal leadership style and the nature of your team you can decide if you want this contract to be explicit or implicit.
The general theme of the contract is that the team will only expend energy on items that correlate to, and are aligned with the stated vision, goals and objectives. In the next post I will discuss Rule #1: No busy work.
In this series we are focusing on six factors critical to success for founders of startups within a larger organization. So far, we have discussed: gaining and maintain latitude/autonomy, honoring sacred cows, putting out a BOLO on the larger organization, building grass roots support, and adopting a distinct fiduciary approach. In this and future posts I want to comment on what may be the most critical factor for success—building a high-performance team.
High performance teams offer the ability to accomplish a great deal with very few resources. Often resembling an elite Special Forces team, they move with a level of alacrity, speed and agility to execute strategic goals with dispatch. All while making it look effortless.
Unfortunately, high-performance teams are as rare as the northern spotted owl. In a subsequent post I will offer my thoughts as to why they are so rare. The reasons may surprise you. For now, I want to offer guidelines for putting a team in place.
Developing a high-performing team is imperative if you want to build something quickly that is meaningful and sustainable. The approach used will differ based on whether your team is “inherited” or is built from scratch. While the checklist is similar for both, my focus here will be when starting from scratch.
Simply put, the addition of each new team member must be deliberate in order to ensure a strategic fit. While this concept seems obvious, it is seldom well executed. Because time is of the essence, the temptation is to staff up quickly. Often, the first action a new leader takes is to develop an organization chart, then immediately hire to fill the prescribed positions. The belief is that taking this all-hands-on-deck approach spreads the workload and allows for speed of execution. The leader may recognize that some of the hires will be a bad fit, so will be quick to fire members that don’t work out. This approach has a number of flaws. I will offer just a few.
- Eliminating a member of the team steals precious time that would be better spent strategizing and building the new venture.
- When new hires are quickly let go, it has a destabilizing effect on the entire team. Other team members aren’t given time to evaluate whether or not the termination was warranted, leaving them uncertain of their own security.
- It is largely ineffective to develop an organization chart this early in the build process. Even though we often need to include one as part of a funding request, it is absurd to act on it until the business model has been tested, modified and more fully proven. Keep in mind that proposals and business plans are always wrong. To believe yours is otherwise is either naïve or egotistical. Developing a precise business plan does not make it right. I merely means it will be more precisely wrong.
Instead, the leader should add each new team member based on immediate need and strategic fit. For example, if the leader scores higher on discovery skills than delivery skills, he might look for someone who excels at program development and execution, and possesses strong project management skills.
If you are building a new venture from within a larger organization, your co-founders must demonstrate excellent 360-degree communication skills; have strong interpersonal skills and an excellent reputation within the larger organization. It is also very helpful if the co-founder has experience in the domain you will occupy.
This process will take time. It is important that the leader exercise the necessary patience to choose wisely, have the courage to handle activities during while searching, and faith that the process will yield positive results.
Once the semblance of a team in place, it is important to create a culture and atmosphere that allows for the highest level of performance. I will expand on this in the next post.
When building a startup within an existing organization, the initiative often falls outside the competency wheelhouse of the host organization. This requires a unique governance focus. As mentioned in the last post, it is important for the startup leader to meet weekly with the report-to executive from the host organization in order to stay connected with the mother ship. The report-to executive will be a valuable champion who can provide a host organization perspective of the startup leader’s strategies and activities. He or she can also be very effective in running interference. Remember, speed is of the essence, so any help keeping away the ankle-biters should be welcomed.
It is equally important to engage thought-leaders specific to startup’s domain. Early in the process, it is advisable to assemble a small advisory team made up of leaders experienced in the specific domain to provide outside accountability, advice and counsel. It is important that these advisors challenge the startup leader, and provide input without pulling punches. While advisory boards are often set up to provide access to influencers and funding, it should be only a secondary objective here. Startups outside the orbit of the host organization are often blazing new frontiers, which can make adequate governance a challenge. Advisors experienced in the arena or ecosystem in which the startup operates are essential to ensure sound governance. A word of caution: you want these advisors to be brutally honest with you, so be prepared to check your ego at the door before meeting with them.
One day this man’s daughter came to him and said, “These puzzles are no longer challenging enough for me. I want you to find for me a puzzle that is really difficult.” So dad purchased a three dimensional puzzle. While that presented a bit more of a challenge, the puzzle was quickly completed, and his daughter said, “Dad, you can do better than that!”
After searching to no avail for a more complex puzzle an idea came to him, and he said, I will find you a puzzle tomorrow with less than 100 pieces that you will not be able to put together.” She said, “Bring it on, dad.”
The next day, the daughter spent the entire time at school in great anticipation. When she got home she ran into the dining room, where she found what looked like a puzzle with relatively few pieces. This was a puzzle she knew she would be able to assemble before evening’s end. Under dad’s watchful eye, she smoothed the puzzle pieces out on the dining room table to begin. Then she said, “Dad, give me the box top so I can get going on this thing.” That’s the catch”, he said. “Your challenge is to put together this puzzle without a picture of what the finished product is supposed to look like.”
After giving him that look only a daughter in high school can master, she set out to assemble the puzzle. After several frustrating attempts over what seemed like an eternity she said, “Dad, how am I supposed to put together a puzzle without having any idea what the finished product is supposed to look like?” After giving her a look that only a dad with a daughter in high school can master he said, “You said you wanted a puzzle that would be tough for you to do.” Her response was, “This is stupid and I don’t want to do it anymore.”
As leaders, how often do we give out similar assignments? We tell those we count on that we need better results. Maybe it is more revenue and profit. We tell them that they have to do better next year than the year before—that they have to be faster, smarter and more competitive than anyone else out there—but we do not articulate a clear plan for how to get there. A good business plan is much like the box top of a puzzle. With it, everyone on the team knows what success looks like when achieved, providing a clear guide along the way.
©Mark P. Loschiavo
During a trip to Italy I was reminded of a difference between Americans and Italians. While walking the streets of Rome I witnessed people engaged with one another in discussion and fellowship both day and night. I saw it in and around the restaurants, the squares, the fountains and on the sidewalks. Time seemed to take on a different meaning.
The Greek language has two different words to describe time. One provides the root for our word chronology, and describes time from the perspective of moving through time. The second refers to time as a moment—a good time was had by all. What struck me as I walked the streets of Rome is that Americans all too often view the things that happen to us on our way to our destinations as distractions or things we must endure along the way. To most Italians these distractions are what life is all about.
Upon further reflection I have come to believe that successful leaders have the ability to capitalize on both elements of time. The first is obvious. Through strong organization skills and the ability to prioritize, effective leaders are able to accomplish a great deal in a short amount of time. While not as obvious, the second is even more important. By being in the moment, and remaining receptive to those we encounter along the way, we can gain a great deal. In addition to developing stronger relationships, being in the moment opens our minds to take advantage of the serendipity that surrounds us. By keeping our eyes open to the possibilities of our everyday encounters we might just find solutions to our toughest problems.
©Mark P. Loschiavo